Cairo Egypt Ayyubid Gold Coin Al-Kamil Muhammad Dinar 632 AH / 1235 AD
Description: A heavy gold dinar from Al-Kamil Muhammad, the Ayyubid Sultan who ruled Egypt and Syria in the period 615-635 AH (1218 - 1238 AD). Al-Kamil Muhammad is the fifth sultan of the Ayyubid dynasty. He ascended the throne upon the death of Al-Adil Abu Bakr I. His full name being, Al- Kamil Nasr al-dinAbu al-Ma'ali Muhammad I Ibn al-Adil I. The coin cites al-Mansur abu Jafar al-Mustansir Billah as the Khalif (Amir Al Mu'aminin). All Kamil or Al Kamel Muhammad is the first Arab Ruler to use Naskhi Calligraphy in coins starting in 624 AH. Please carefully review the scan as it is part and parcel of our description.
Date: 632 AH or 1235 AD.
Mint: Al Qahira, current day Cairo the capital of Egypt.
Size and Weight: This is a dinar, weighs ~5.5 grams, which is rather heavy for these dinars, and is 21.5 mm in diameter.
References: It is Album #811 and is Number 379 in Balog. It is listed in Lane Poole's Catalog of the Khedivial Collection as 1402.
Condition: I would grade this coin as a nice very fine or much better. Note some signs of slight double striking especially on the obverse. Please note the coin itself is much better than the scan shows with very well defined and legible calligraphy. A definite quality coin.
Historic Perspective: The Ayyubids were one of the great Islamic dynasties. The dynasty was founded by al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf I (Saladin) in AH 564/1169 AD and ruled in Egypt and Syria until falling to the Mamluks in the mid 7th century AH. The Ayyubids are of Kurdish origins. Saladin and his brother Shirquah were recruited among others by the Zangid Nur Al-Din. Shirquah gained control over Egypt from the Fatimids, and died almost immediately, leaving his nephew Salah El-Din Ibn Ayyub as his successor and soon was recognized by his troops. Saladin (probably the most respected figure of the middle ages by both friends and foes) was the real founder of the Dynasty. With his victory at Hittin in 583 AH/ 1187 AD, the holy city of Jerusalem was liberated from the crusaders and great event in Muslim history. He extinguished the last Fatimids of Egypt and replaced the Isma’ili Shiism by a strongly Orthodox Sunni religious and educational policy.
Al-Kamel Mohammad was the nephew of Saladin. His father is Al-Adil I, Saladin’s brother. The most important and significant historical event of his rule is the treaty he signed in Gaza with the Crusaders in 1226 AD. Frederick II Hohenstaufen under pressure by the Pope in Rome and threatened to be excommunicated, was to lead an expedition to free Jerusalem by force. For his part Al-Kamel, threatened by rebellious relatives in his Syrian territories, was neither willing nor able to defend Jerusalem. He finally signed the treaty giving the crusaders access to the holy city and one or two other towns including Nazareth. One point of view suggests the summit at Gaza was a remarkable diplomatic achievement where the two superpowers avoided bloodshed and came to a peaceful resolution of a conflict. Another point of view suggests Al-Kamel simply and easily surrendered Jerusalem which just a generation ago was liberated by his uncle.